Posts Tagged ‘GPO’

Today in Government Information: Why you still want a library

Anyone who has looked for government information in the past several years knows that most of it is available online. As long ago as 1998, when I started working with government documents, the word was spreading that “soon” everything will be online. I’m not sure we even knew what a PDF was in those days, nor authentication, but we knew which way the wind was blowing. Close to 15 years later, not everything is online, but many government information sources are not distributed in print any more. The trend towards putting more and more online continues.

That raises an obvious question which troubles some in the government information community. If virtually everything is available online – and in the realm of government information, almost free of charge – why on earth do we still need depository libraries? When a researcher can sit in the comfort of his own home, in his bunny slippers, and find all the information through a Google search, why maintain the depository system?

The Modern Researcher

The answer is expertise from librarians, particularly government information specialists. Each depository library is required to designate a staff member as a “coordinator” who is charged with maintaining the collection, ensuring access to the public, and assisting researchers in need of assistance. While it is true that a simple Google search can turn up a wealth of information, can it verify that you’re looking at the most recent edition? Can it suggest an agency’s other publications that might be useful? And if the search is too successful, can it help you weed through thousands of results, by suggesting additional terms to include or avoid? A government documents specialist can do all of that, and more. The depository system is not just a distribution method for print documents, it is also a network of specialist librarians across country. These librarians are often the best gateway to information aside from an agency itself, and they are so much more convenient – wherever you happen to be.

Map of Depository Libraries

Map of Depository Libraries

I don’t think depositories are going anywhere. I think they bring value to researchers and the general public, and as the Government Printing Office says, they keep American informed.


September 19, 2011 1 comment

“… the Constitutions of Clarendon were duly set down in a chirograph on January 29, the text written out three times on the same parchment and then torn so as to validate all three copies when joined together.” – Sharon Kay Penman, Time and Chance 210 (2002) (describing an accord between King Henry II of England and Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Becket, 1164).

The problem of determining the authenticity of legal documents is not a new one – it is in fact a very ancient one. Medieval lawyers and kings prevented forgeries of important agreements as described above: by writing the same text on a piece of parchment and cutting it jaggedly, so the two parts fit back together like puzzle pieces, verifying that neither has been substituted for the real one. An example of this technique is on the PCL’s first floor, near the stairwell.

English charter showing jagged edge

Note the jagged top edge, with writing

If you look carefully, you can see that there is a word – probably chirograph – written across the jagged edge. Obviously this method wasn’t foolproof: It would still be possible to create a controversy by neatly altering one of the texts. (I had a music teacher who taught me to scrape text off a printed page and buff the remaining surface; it’s also possible with parchment. Scraping is actually part of the process to prepare parchment for use.)

For much of the last century, this was less of an issue. Most legal documents we relied on were obtained through trusted sources – from a reputable publisher, from the court, or directly from the government – and alterations would have been obvious. In many cases, there were so many copies (of a court’s opinion, for instance) that altering one copy would be easily discovered. (This is one of the operating principles behind some online preservation efforts – Lots of Copies Keeps Stuff Safe.) But in an age where many researchers rely on online access, and hacking of institutional systems is not infrequent, there need to be additional safeguards in place.

Conceptually, authentication comes down to two questions:

1. Did you get the document from a source you trust, and
2. can you verify that it hasn’t changed since they gave it to you?

Acquiring a document from a trusted source is still important. One way of doing that is to go to reputable information sources, including commercial sources (like publishers), country or state governments, or non-governmental organization. When these sources are hacked, it makes news. Recently, the federal government has implemented technological systems that address the second question. The new online system to access federal documents, FDsys, incorporates an authentication process. While the details of the technology are – frankly – beyond my comprehension, authenticated documents display an eagle symbol and a notice that the document is certified by the Superintendent of Documents.

Authentication seal & certification for H.R. 36, 112th Cong. (1st Sess. 2011).

Authentication seal, certified by the Superintendent of Documents

While the federal government has taken the lead, efforts in states vary widely. Surveys of the states in 2007 and 2009 revealed that while some states are relying on online versions of their basic legal documents, almost none are authenticating those documents via any technological means. They are relying on the protections of state websites and .PDF formats, neither of which are impregnable to the dedicated hacker.

As students and practitioners of legal research and writing, you should know that the most recent citation guidelines refer to “Authenticated documents” as one type of online source that is permissible to cite (Rule 18.2.1(b)). Presumably the federal government’s initiative will spread to the various states, and perhaps by the 20th edition of The Bluebook (or maybe the 21st edition), authenticated online documents will be the norm!